MS Locke c.28, fols 121-138

 

Contents of this manuscript description

Introduction

Size

Watermarks

Stitching and pins

Quires and page numbers

Contents

Marginal entries

Catchwords

Scribes/Ink

Texts within this manuscript

1. Of the Conduct of the Understanding (1697-1704) fols 121-138 [about]

 

Introduction

[1] Ff. 18. Paper. Nine half sheets, each sheet folded in 1 quire, each quire consisting of 2 leaves.

Size

[2] Sizes given are in mm and not of the leaves but of the complete half sheets of which each quire is made up: π 309×198; 2π 311×197; A 311 × 199; B 310 × 197; C 309 × 197; D 320 × 205; E 320 × 207; F 311 × 192; G 314 × 189.

Watermarks

[3] The watermark of the paper of quires 2π and B shows a small sword and the countermark of quires π, A and C gives an ‘A’. It is likely that quires π-C all consist of the same paper. (The combination of a small sword as watermark and an ‘A’ as countermark also appears in the last quires, P-R, of MS Locke e.1, see MS Locke e.1 [3].) The countermark in quire D is a crown. The watermark in quire E gives an elaborate horn and baldric. Quire F has neither watermark nor countermark. The countermark in quire G gives the initials ‘IASH’. This means that quires D-G consist of at least two different sorts of paper.

Stitching and pins

[4] Quires π-2π and A-C have holes that suggest earlier stitching. These holes are not on the fold but 5-10 mm away from it, each hole perforating both leaves of the quire. The distance between the holes in these quires suggests that π-2π have been stitched together and that A-C have been stitched together, but that π-2π and A-C remained separate from each other. Quires π-2π and A-C may have been parts of separate notebooks. Quires D-F show no traces of earlier binding.

Quires and page numbers

[5] Formula: π22 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 G2 ; 18 leaves, fols 121-138 (all folio numbers were added by the Bodleian librarian). Each quire consists of 1 half sheet divided, with the longer side horizontal, by 1 vertical fold in 2 equal leaves. Quires A-C have their signature at the foot, left side, of the first page of each quire. Quires π-2π and D-G have no signature. The folio number of the first leaf of each quire is: π 121; 2π 123; A 125; B 127; C 129; D 131; E 133; F 135; G 137.

Contents

[6] Fol. 121r, the first page of the first quire (quire π), starts with ‘Of the conduct of / the understanding / Ch: I / Introduction’ (see ill. 4); this chapter covers fols 121r-123r and corresponds with MS Locke e.1, pp. 62, 114-116, 62-64. Fol. 125r, the first page of quire A, is headed ‘Ch: / Of Reasoning’. This entry is repeated in the headers of fols 125v-129v (both recto and verso). The impression is, at least on fols 126r-129v, that ‘Of Reasoning’ is inserted later between ‘Ch:’ and the main text. This chapter covers fols 125r-130r and corresponds with MS Locke e.1, pp. 56-62, 248-261. After a gap, consisting of several leaves that are now lost, the text then resumes mid-sentence on the first page of quire D with the latter part of what in the present edition is par. 17 plus par. 18-20. This part is covered by fols 131r-132v and corresponds with MS Locke e.1, pp. 82-88. The next chapter is headed ‘Ch. / Of Mathematicks’, covers fols 132v-135v and corresponds with MS Locke e.1, pp. 88-95. The last chapter is headed ‘Ch. / of Religion’, covers fols 135v-137r and corresponds with MS Locke e.1, pp. 92-96.

Marginal entries

[7] Folios 121-132 have an inner margin but no outer margin. Folios 133-138 have margins on both sides of the page. There are 4 kinds of marginal entries, all appearing in fols 121-132 and none in fols 133-138: (1) the number ‘1’ at the top of the margin of fol. 121r, the first page of quire π; (2) the word ‘Conduct’ at the top of the margin of fol. 125r, the first page of quire A; (3) numbers in the margin of fols 121r-132v: fol. 121r has 62; fol. 121v 114; fol. 122v 62; fol. 125r 56 and 58; fol. 126r 60; fol. 126v 62 and 248; fol. 127r 250; fol. 127v 252; fol. 128r 254; fol. 128v 256; fol. 129r 258; fol. 129v 260; fol. 131r 84; fol. 132r 86; and fol. 132v has 88 at the end of the incomplete chapter on fols 131r-132v and again 88 at the start of ‘Of Mathematics’; (4) other entries, such as an occasional expansion of an abbreviation (fol. 122v) and an addition (fol. 125r). The headwords and keywords in the margins of MS Locke e.1 were not copied into MS Locke c.28, unless they were used in the latter manuscript as the title of a chapter.

Catchwords

[8] All pages ending with text that is continued on the next page have catchwords.

Scribes/Ink

[9] Folios 121-130, i.e. the chapters ‘Introduction’ and ‘Of Reasoning’, are largely in the hand of Locke’s amanuensis William Shaw (see 1. Of the Conduct of the Understanding (1697-1704) [8]). However, there are some exceptions. (1) The hand of Locke himself appears briefly on fol. 121r to set up the text of the ‘Conduct’ for his scribe; ‘Of the conduct of / the understanding / Ch: I / Introduction / The last resort …’ is in Locke’s hand (see ill. 4). In the same way he had set up a new paragraph for Shaw on p. 210 in MS Locke e.1 (see ill. 3). (2) On fol. 121v the following sentence appears immediately after the first introductory paragraph: ‘There is, tis visible, great variety in mens understandings: And their natural constitutions put soe wide a difference between some men in this respect, that art and industry would never be able to master and their very natures seem to want a foundation to raise on it that which other men easily attain unto.’ This sentence had also appeared after the first introductory paragraph of the ‘Conduct’ in the version of MS Locke e.1, p. 62. However, on fol. 121v of MS Locke c.28 a foreign hand breaks in that deletes this sentence and then adds: ‘...this is repeated again two leaves farther, where I think is its proper place. and it ought to be omitted here.’ This hand is neither Locke’s nor Shaw’s, rather, it belongs to Peter King (see 1. Of the Conduct of the Understanding (1697-1704) [17]). (3) Next, Locke made an addition on fol. 123r, at the end of chapter 1. After Shaw had copied the last sentence: ‘And it is easy to perceive that men are guilty of a great many faults in the exercise and improvement of this facultie of the minde which hinders them in their progresse and keeps them in ignorance and error all their lives.’ Locke added the following sentence that is absent from MS Locke e.1: ‘Some of them I shall take notice of, and endeavour to point out proper remedies for in the following Chapters. (4) The title of the next chapter, on fol. 125r, ‘Of Reasoning’, is also in Locke’s hand. (5) In addition, Shaw’s transcription of the chapters ‘Introduction’ and ‘Of Reasoning’ has several minor additions and corrections by Locke and by King. For instance, Locke made some additions on fols 125r, 125v and 126v, while King’s corrections can be found on fols 125v, 126r and 126v. After fols 121-130 follow fols 131-138, which are in the hand of yet one other scribe, probably a scribe employed by King (see 1. Of the Conduct of the Understanding (1697-1704) [17]). However, a foreign hand breaks in shortly on fol. 132v to write the head of the chapter ‘Of Mathematicks’ and its first four lines (see ill. 5). The writer of these lines is again King. Folios 131-138 no longer show any trace of Locke’s hand. The scribe employed by King left open a space on fol. 131r, so that a word he could not decipher could be entered later, but this completion was never made. (6) Finally, all folio numbers in MS Locke c.28 fols 121-138 were added by the Bodleian librarian.

Milton, ‘Manservant as Amanuensis: Sylvester Brounower’, p. 81.
The place that Locke prescribes here is indeed the place that it has been given both in C-1706 and in the present edition; this place results once his instructions in MS Locke e.1 pp. 113-114 concerning the introductory paragraphs on pp. 114-116 of the same manuscript are carried out (see below, 1. Of the Conduct of the Understanding (1697-1704) [23]).
In the present edition, this sentence is given in the collation of MS Locke e.1 with MS Locke c.28.’
Cf. Heawood, 3138.
For a similar use of pins by Locke, see his Journal for 1690, MS Locke f.10, pp. 24-25.
For a similar use of the word ‘Understanding’ for a quire that contains additions to the Essay, see MS Locke c.28, fols 115-116.
The main instances of use of this different ink are listed in the annotation to the text.