MS Locke e.1

 

Contents of this manuscript description

Introduction

Size

Watermarks

Stitching and pins

Quires and page numbers

Contents

Marginal entries

Catchwords

Scribes/Ink

Corrections and additions

Texts within this manuscript

14. Maximes (c. 1699) p. 183 [about]

15. ‘Monsieur Menage’ (c. 1699) p. 184 [about]

31. List with scriptural passages (1695-1697) pp. 30-31 [about]

1. Of the Conduct of the Understanding (1697-1704) pp. i + iv + 1 + 56-261 [about]

11. Enthusiasm (1695-1697) pp.1, 2-6, 7, 9, 10-31. [about]

12. Ballance the difficulties (1697) pp. 6, 8, 9, 10, 11 [about]

13. Association (1697) pp. 32-56 [about]

 

Introduction

[1] Pp. vi+272. Paper. Throughout the manuscript the main text is entered on the verso sides of the leafs, while the recto sides are reserved for corrections and additions.

Size

[2] The 4 quarter sheets of each quire have the same size, but there is variation between the different quires themselves. The sizes that follow are in mm and not of the leaves but of the complete quarter sheets of the quires (the size given for π is of what has remained from what was probably one half sheet, see [5]): π 230 × 194; A 199 × 159; B 196 × 156; C 195 × 155; D 205 × 157; E 206 × 156; F 205 × 156; G 206 × 152; H 206 × 155; I 206 × 156; K 206 × 155; L 205 × 155; M 205 × 155; N 195 × 154; O 190 × 153; P 191 × 153; Q 199 × 154; R 201 × 154.

Watermarks

[3] The half sheet of quire π has no watermark, the countermark gives the initials ‘CS’. The watermark of the paper of quire A consists of a large medallion with the Seven Provinces’ lion, the countermark gives a combination of the letters ‘P’ and ‘L’:

The watermark in quires B-C shows the London coat of arms (a shield in four quarters with a sword in the first quarter), the countermark gives the initials ‘EB’ (cf. the watermark of MS Locke c.28, fols 119-120, MS Locke c.28, fols 119-120 [3]). The watermark in quires D-M shows a horn and baldric and the countermark gives again the combination of the letters ‘P’ and ‘L’ (somewhat smaller than the similar countermark on quire A). The watermark in quires N-O shows again a London coat of arms and the countermark gives the initials ‘CS’ (as quire π). The watermark in quires P-R shows a small sword and the countermark is an ‘A’.

Stitching and pins

[4] The manuscript was bound after transference to the Bodleian Library. However, traces of earlier stitching, in the form of small holes on the folds, have remained in the quires. The distance between these holes is roughly equal for all the quires, suggesting that they were all tied together. Quire π is again a special case. It has traces of previous stitching on one of its outer edges, viz. the right edge of p. iv = the left edge of p. v. The Bodleian librarian stitched it with the other quires with 1 of its 2 folds, viz. the fold separating pp. ii-iii on the inside and vi-i on the outside (see [5], Figure 1). Finally, the leaves within each of the quires A-N show signs of being held together by a pin.

Quires and page numbers

[5] π4(-π1) A-N8 O-R 8. Quires O-R received no signature either and are therefore given in italics. The superscripted numbers indicate the number of leaves of each quire. Quire π was originally 1 half sheet, divided with the longer side horizontal by three vertical folds in 4 equal sections, resulting in 4 leaves = 8 pages. However, the first leaf was lost (indicated by ‘-π1’ in the formula), leaving quire π with only 3 leaves = 6 pages, pp. i-vi (all page numbers in MS Locke e.1 not entered by Locke himself are presented in italics); see Figure 1.

Figure 1: quire π of MS Locke e.1

The hypothesis concerning a missing first leaf in quire π is confirmed by the fact that the present length of π is about 3/4 the length of 1 half sheet, as deduced from the size of the quarter sheets that make up the remaining quires (see [2]); by the place of the countermark (see [3]); and by the fact that the present first page of the quire gives only the last part of an index to the ‘Conduct’ (see [6]). The original first leaf probably contained the first part of this index. Quires A-M have their signature at the top of the first and last page; quire N has ‘N’ at the top of the first page but not on the last page; quires O-R have no signature at all. On the first page of quire A and the last page of quires B-M, the signature is preceded by ‘Understanding’. In most cases ‘Understanding’ and the subsequent signature were entered together and before Locke had started entering the text itself. An exception to this rule can be found on the last page of quire A, p. 16, where ‘Understanding’ is entered at a distance from ‘A’, after the page had already been filled with text. The number of the first page of each quire is: π i; A 1; B 17; C 33; D 49; E 65; F 81; G 97; H 113; I 129; K 145; L 159; M 175; N 191; O 207; P 223; Q 239; R 255. Quires A-N and O-R (together 17 quires) each consist of 1 sheet that was divided, with the longer side horizontal, in 2 equal parts by 1 vertical fold, that was then divided again, with the longer side horizontal, in 2 equal parts by 1 vertical fold and that was finally divided again, with the shorter side horizontal, in 2 equal parts by 1 vertical fold, resulting in quires with 4 quarter sheets = 8 leaves = 16 pages each, with the following page numbers: 1 2-74 742 76-83 832 84 86-145 246 147-155 1542-1552 156-199 1992 200-203 205-208 209 210-239 240 241-252 1532 254 255 256-261 262-270 [=272 pp.]; number of p. 2 only partially legible; Locke miswrote 75 as 74, 84 as 83, 85 as 84, 146 as 246, 200 as 199, 201-204 as 200-203 and 253 as 153; page numbers corrected by Locke (wrong → right): 732 → 74; 812-82 → 82-83; 204 → 205; 213 → 214; 1272-1282 → 228-229; 1302-1372 → 230-237; 1522 → 252; 1542 → 254; 1562-1572 → 256-257. The Bodleian librarian added some missing page numbers in the manuscript: i, iii, v, 263, 265, 267 and 269. He also corrected most misnumberings left uncorrected by Locke himself: 742 → 75; 832 → 84; 84 → 85; 154-155 → 154a-155a; 1542-1552 → 154b-155b; 1992 → 200; 200-203 → 201-204. However, in the present edition all reference to MS Locke e.1 is by means of Locke’s own page numbers (including miswritten page numbers) or by italicized page numbers used for pages that Locke did not number himself. Reference is made to corrected page numbers when the correction was made by Locke himself, but no reference is made to the corrected page numbers as given by the Bodleian librarian.

Contents

[6] Page i, from top to foot: the last part of an index to the ‘Conduct’ (the first part of this index was probably on a previous page that has been lost, see [5], but p. i must already have been the first page of what is now called ‘MS Locke e.1’ about as long as p. 270 has been its last page, since both pages are discoloured in a similar degree); instructions by Locke: ‘Mem: That these following discourses are to be writ out under their several heads into distinct Chapters, and then to be numberd and ranged according to their natural order’, followed by the stamp of the Bodleian Library; and finally ‘MS Locke e.1’ in the hand of the Bodleian librarian. Page iv: the Ciceronian motto of the ‘Conduct’: ‘Quid tam temerarium tamque indignum sapientis gravitate atque constantiâ, quam aut falsum sentire, aut quod non satis explorate perceptum sit et cognitum sine ullâ dubitatione defendere? Cic: de Nat: deorum l. 1’ (see ill. 1). Page 1 containst several fragments: (1) a list of some subjects (most of them deleted) that Locke was to address in the ‘Conduct’; (2) some loose remarks, anticipating the text of the ‘Conduct’ (see again ill. 1); (3) addition to ‘Enthusiasm’, draft for Essay, IV.xix.10, ‘Of Enthusiasm’ (deleted). Pages 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9: first part of ‘Enthusiasm’ (deleted); the chapter on enthusiasm was included in the fourth edition, and also in the fifth edition and subsequent editions. Pages 6, 8, 9, 10, 11: ‘Ballance the difficulties’. Draft for Essay, IV.iii.6, ‘Of the Extant of Humane Knowledge’ (deleted); also included in the fourth edition. Pages 10-30: second part of ‘Enthusiasm’ (deleted); included in the fourth edition as well. Pages 30-31: list with scriptural passages, probably related to ‘Enthusiasm’. Pages 32-56: a piece on ‘Association’ (deleted); pages 32-54 were used forEssay, II.xxiii, ‘Of the Association of Ideas’ (up to ‘...that follow’, §18, p. 401, line 9 in Nidditch’s edition), while the content of pp. 52-56 reappears in par. 78-79 of the ‘Conduct’, on pp. 210-216 in the same manuscript (however, this later version is not copied completely and directly from pp. 52-56; see [9]). Pages 56-62: a passage on ‘Reasoning’ (belonging to the ‘Conduct’ and continued on pp. 248-261 of the same manuscript). On p. 62 starts ‘B: IV C: XX Of the Conduct of the understanding’ (see ill. 2). The rest of the manuscript, up to and including p. 261, is covered by the text of the ‘Conduct’, with the exception of p. 182, which gives ‘Maximes’, an addition to Essay, IV.xii.3; and p. 184, ‘Monsieur Menage’, an addition to Essay, III.vi.26 (both passages deleted); both passages were included in the fourth edition of the Essay. Page 81 contains a short list (deleted), similar to the one on p. 1, of subjects that Locke was to address in the ‘Conduct’; and p. 270 ends with an entry in the Bodleian librarian’s hand: ‘vi+270 pages really 272 for 154, 155 are double’ and with again the stamp of the Bodleian Library. Deletion of the Essay passages does not imply their rejection but their transcription elsewhere.

Marginal entries

[7] All marginal entries in MS Locke e.1 are in the left margin of the text. These entries fall into 5 categories. (1) General headers placed at the top of the margin, see table 1 (deletions between square brackets, additions in italics). (2) Entries stating the content of one or more paragraphs (headwords), placed at the start of a new paragraph. From p. 208 onwards, headwords started in the margin are continued into the space reserved for the main text, while no more keywords are given. (3) Entries high-lighting a specific topic within a paragraph (keywords) and whose place can be anywhere in the margin alongside the text. It is not always possible to distinguish with certainty between headwords and keywords (headwords/keywords appear in the ‘Conduct’ only and are listed in Table 4. (4) Entries consisting of numbers that appear after some headwords/keywords: p. 56: Reasoning 1; p. 60: partial views 3; p. 62: Introduction 4 (‘4’ superimposed on ‘61’); p. 62: Parts 6; p. 64: Practise 9; p.68: Habits 11; p. 78: Suffisance 19. (5) Entries consisting of a vertical line in the margin: pp. 56-64, 114-116 and 248-260; the line signals the transcription of the text from these pages to another document (see 1. Of the Conduct of the Understanding (1697-1704) [15]).

Catchwords

[8] Most pages ending with text that is continued on the next page have a catchword. In the few cases where they do not, there is no evidence of discontinuity in the text.

Scribes/Ink

[9] MS Locke e.1 is for the most part written in Locke’s hand. His handwriting shows what may be signs of diminishing vigour towards the end of MS Locke e.1; this seems to be the case at least for the last unfinished paragraph of the ‘Conduct’, on ‘Custome’, p. 260. The text of the ‘Conduct’ was not entered entirely by Locke alone. MS Locke e.1 has some added and corrected page numbers and some other additions in the hand of the Bodleian librarian (see [5] and [6]). Moreover, there is the text on pp. 210-216, which largely repeats pp. 52-56, i.e. the part of Locke’s remarks on ‘Association’ that he had previously chosen not to include in the fourth edition of the Essay and that would be included in the ‘Conduct’. The text on pp. 210-216 is in the hand of Locke’s amanuensis William Shaw (see ill. 3; for more on Shaw, see 1. Of the Conduct of the Understanding (1697-1704) [8]). At least part of the text on pp. 210-216 must have been copied by Shaw from another source than pp. 52-56; the text on pp. 210-216 contains a full sentence that is absent from the text on pp. 52-56 (in the present edition of the ‘Conduct’ this is the last sentence of par. 77).

Corrections and additions

[10] Larger additions are mostly entered either on the empty recto side of leafs facing the verso side of the leafs on which the ‘first version’ text had been entered, or on the verso side of new leafs with a higher page-number. In the latter case Locke generally takes care to give clear internal references to page numbers, allowing us to follow the various jumps from one page to another. For example: the end of the paragraph on p. 145 of MS Locke e.1 (par. 50 of the present edition) is followed by: ‘vid 2 p. 192’ (with ‘2’ written inside a square); the subsequent paragraph, on p. 192 (par. 51) is then preceded by: ‘v 2 p. 145’ (with ‘2’ again written inside a square). Most of the text in MS Locke e.1 is entered in black ink. However, the occasional use of ink that now looks brown (possibly caused by a chemical reaction in the paper) sets apart at least one layer of corrections and additions.

Milton, ‘Manservant as Amanuensis: Sylvester Brounower’, p. 81.
The place that Locke prescribes here is indeed the place that it has been given both in C-1706 and in the present edition; this place results once his instructions in MS Locke e.1 pp. 113-114 concerning the introductory paragraphs on pp. 114-116 of the same manuscript are carried out (see below, 1. Of the Conduct of the Understanding (1697-1704) [23]).
In the present edition, this sentence is given in the collation of MS Locke e.1 with MS Locke c.28.’
Cf. Heawood, 3138.
For a similar use of pins by Locke, see his Journal for 1690, MS Locke f.10, pp. 24-25.
For a similar use of the word ‘Understanding’ for a quire that contains additions to the Essay, see MS Locke c.28, fols 115-116.
The main instances of use of this different ink are listed in the annotation to the text.