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8. Morality (c. 1692-c. 1696)

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Morality

Morality is the rule of mans actions for the atteining happynesse

For the end and aime of all men being happynesse alone noe thing could be a rule or a law to them whose observation did not lead to happynesse and whose breach did <not> draw misery after it

Def:

Happynesse and misery consist in pleasure and pain. Good is what gives or increases pleasure or takes away or deminishes pain and Evill, is the contrary

Axiom 1

All men desire the enjoyment of happynesse and the absence of misery and that only and always

Ax 2

Ax

Men act only for what they desire . Happynesse therefor being their end the means of atteineing it can be alone the rule of action

Every one knows that man is capable of some degree of happynesse and great degrees of misery in this life

It is also evident that that power that made a man exist here in a state capable of pleasure and pain can as well make him exist again after he has lost all sense and perception by death as he that first made him exist can bring him back again to a state of sensibility and continue in it capable of pleasure or pain as long as he pleases.

This therefor is evident that there is pleasure and pain to be had in this life and thatit is possible there may be a state after this life where in men may be capable of injoyments or sufferings.

As to this life then let us see what is the way of atteinment of pleasure and avoiding of pain for that must needs be the rule of action to all sorts of beings who have noe prospect beyond this life

Man made not him self nor any other man

Man made not the world which he found made at his birth.

therefor one man at his birth can have noe right to any thing in the world more then an other men therefor must either enjoy all things in common or by compact determin their rights if all thing be left in common want rapin and force will unavoidably follow in which state as is evident happynesse cannot be had which can not consist without plenty and security.

To avoid this estate compact must determin peoples rights

These compacts are to be kept or broken. If to be broken their makeing signifies noe thing if to be kept then Justice is established as a duty and will be the first and generall rule of our happynesse

But it may be objected it may be sometimes a mans advantage to breake his word and there I may doe it as contributeing to my happynesse Response: All men being equally under one and the same rule if it be permitted to me to breake my word for my advantage it is also permitted every one else and then whatever I possesse will be subjected to the force or deceit of all the rest of the men in the world in which state it is impossible for any man to be happy unlesse he were both stronger and wiser then all the rest of man kinde for in such a state of rapin and force it is impossible any one man should be master of those things whose possession is necessary to his well being

Justice the greatest and difficultest duty being thus established the rest will not be hard

The next sort of vertues are those which relate to society and soe border on Justice but yet are not comprised under direct articles of contract such as are Civility Charity Liberality.

Civility is noething but outward expressions of good will and esteem or at least of noe contempt or hatred

Morality

Diplomatic

139r

Morality

Morality is the rule of mans actions for the atteining happynesse

For the end and aime of all men being happynesse alone noe thing could be a rule or a law to them noe whose observation did not lead to happynesse and whose breach did <not> draw misery after it

Def:

Happynesse and misery consist in pleasure and pain. Good is what gives or increases pleasure Evil what gives or increases or takes away or deminishes pain and Evill, is the contrary

Axiom 1

All men seeke happynesse and happynesse only and always desire the most enjoyment of happynesse and that only and always. Men desire the enjoyment of happynesse and the absence of misery and that only and always

Ax 2 Men flye only misery and that only and always

Ax

Men act only for what they desire The means of atteining what they desire. Happynesse therefor being their end the means of atteineing it can be alone their the rule of action

139v

Every one knows that man is capable of some degree of happynesse and great degrees of misery in this life

Since also mad It is also evident that that power that made a man exist here in a state capable of pleasure and pain and made him continue in such an estate longer then is the ordinary life of man can as well make him exist again after he has lost all sense and perception by death as he can ma<ke> as he that first made him exist can bring him back again to a state of sensibility and continue in it capable of pleasure and or pain as long as he pleases.

This therefor is evident that there is pleasure and pain to be had in this life and all thatit is possible there may be a state after this life where in men may be capable of injoyments or sufferings.

As to this life then let us see what is the way of atteinment of pleasure and avoiding of pain for that must needs be the rule of action to all sorts of beings who have noe prospect beyond

140r

this life

Man made not him self nor any other man

Man made not the world which he found made at his birth.

therefor one man at his birth can have noe right to any thing in the world more then an other men therefor must either enjoy all things in common or by compact determin their rights if all thing be left in common want rapin and force will unavoidably follow in which state as is evident happynesse cannot be had which can not consist without plenty and security.

To avoid this estate compact must determin peoples rights w

These compacts are to be kept or broken. If to be broken their makeing signifies noe thing if to be kept then Justice presentl<y> is established as a duty and will be the first and generall rule of our happynesse

But it may be objected it may be sometimes a mans advantage to breake his word and there I may doe it as contributeing

140v

to my happynesse Response: All men being equally under one and the same rule if it be permitted to me to breake my word for my advantage it is also permitted every one else and then whatever I possesse will be subjected to the force or deceit of all the rest of the men in the world in which state it is impossible for any man to be happy unlesse he were both stronger and wiser then all the rest of man kinde for in such a state of rapin and force it is impossible any one man should be master of those things whose possession is necessary to his well being

Justice the greatest and difficultest duty being thus established the rest will not be hard

The next sort of vertues are those which relate to society and soe border on Justice but yet are not comprehend comprised under direct articles of contract such as are Civility Charity Liberality.

Civility is noething but outward expressions of good will and esteem or at least of noe contempt or hatred

139r

Morality


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On the state of nature and on compact cf. TT, e.g. II, 14.
Cf. TT, II, 123.
Cf. Education, §144: ‘The thing they should endeavour and aim at in Converstation, should be to shew Respect, Esteem, and Good-will, by paying to every one that common Ceremony and Regard which is in civility due to them.’
Emendation suggested by Goldie, p. 267.
yt
Emendation suggested by Goldie, p. 268.
Locke’s endorsement.
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